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Conley of the University of Michigan, the HIV estimate should be bigger—a lot bigger.In fact, the average guess for the HIV case was a little over 71 people per thousand, while the average guess for the car-crash scenario was about 4 people per thousand. parents try to “micromanage” their children’s sexuality, “with the danger of STIs [Sexually Transmitted Infections] being a large part of that.”At the same time, “parents are excited about kids getting their driver's licenses, and do not regularly forbid their child from driving …So participants who were given the “chlamydia” vignette might have reasoned something like this. I’m going to rate this person harshly now, because I disapprove of this irresponsible behavior.”Similarly, as the philosopher and cognitive scientist Jonathan La Tourelle of Arizona State University pointed out to me, “people might think that if you have chlamydia there is at least some probability you have it because of some prior sexual behavior that they disapprove of as well.”In the swine-flu case, the same kind of judgment just couldn’t apply.“If the person in this story had made sure that condoms were being used—which is the responsible thing to do in a casual sexual encounter—then the STI would very likely not have been transmitted. That’s because even if safe-sex strategies were being employed, the virus would transmit exactly the same.If these differences could somehow explain the weird estimates that participants gave in the first study—without having anything to do with sex-related stigma, specifically—it would undermine Conley’s theory.Conley and her team designed a test that would compare “apples to apples”—two cases where a health threat was transmitted through sex, but only one of which was an actual STI.“Stigmatizing behaviors does not prevent unhealthy activities from occurring.For example, the more individuals experience stigma associated with their weight, the less likely they are to lose weight.”So, they conclude, “we have every reason to suspect that stigmatizing STIs will [likewise] be associated with poorer sexual-health outcomes.”They give two examples to illustrate this risk.
And two: If someone thinks their potential sexual partner will judge them for having an STI, then they’ll be less likely to bring it up. Stigmatizing some behaviors (like overeating) doesn’t seem to reduce them, but what about other behaviors—like smoking?Imagine that a thousand people—randomly selected from the U. How many will die on the trip as a result of a car crash? If you’re anything like the participants in a new study led by Terri D. How many of them will eventually die from contracting HIV from that single sexual encounter? These people will drive from Detroit to Chicago tomorrow—about 300 miles.There is some evidence, though it is contested, that increasing stigma around smoking actually has been pretty effective in reducing the number of smokers over time.When it comes to stigmatization, then, the question is whether risky sex is more like smoking, or more like overeating.